Shiraz’s Qavam orangery garden it’s one of the famous sights of Fars province that Zhivar wants to introduce it to you. A spectacular garden from Qajar era that attract many tourists and offers them a delightful atmosphere. Qavam orangery garden pictures are so beautiful that tempt you to visit the city of citrus aurantium and visit this building.
Why Qavam orangery garden?
It’s one of the most famous and beautiful gardens of Iran.
There is a museum in this garden, where you can see American Iran expert, professor Pup’s donations.
There are seven Iranian arts used in this garden which make it even more valuable.
Qavam orangery garden introduction | seven Iranian arts manifestation
In Shiraz’s Lotf Ali Khan Zand Avenue, there are many places to visit and create different memories, Qavam orangery garden is one of these places. The garden that you can go to last centuries by strolling in it and enjoy the magnificent environment. This garden, which is a memorial of Qajar era, is known as Qavam garden among the commons and because of the building inside of it, it is also known as Qavam orangery garden. Qavam garden is located in an area that is in the eastern end of the old city. In the past, Dowlat gate, Manzar gate and Darb-e-sheikh neighborhood which were important places in Shiraz, were located in this place, and this also make Qavam garden even more important. In Qavam orangery garden, you can see seven Iranian arts. Fillet, traditional painting, mirror work, brick work, lithograph, mosaic and wood carving are used in every corner of garden as beautifully as possible. This garden was listed in Iranian national buildings list in May 1353 SH with the number of 1073 and have been included as an important heritage of Iran’s history.
Who was the Qavam family?
Qavam family was one of the influential and powerful families of the Qajar era who have ruled over Fars province and its surrounding areas for centuries. This family was children of Haj Ibrahim Khan Kalantar-e-shirazi, and lived in Shiraz’s “bala kaft” neighborhood. Many Shiraz’s spectacular places were built or restored by this family which includes Qavam Hosseiniyeh, Afif Abad garden, Delgosha garden, Kalantar garden, Biglar Beigi garden, Zinat al-Mulk house and Qavam orangery garden.
Qavam orangery garden history
According to historical documents, during Zandie kingdom, Haj Ibrahim Khan Kalantar Etemad-o-dowle Shirazi, one of great men of Shiraz, betrayed Lotf Ali Khan Zand, during that time. This led Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar to simply dominate the south of Iran and by overthrowing Zand kingdom, expanded his sphere of influence and monarchy. Due to this valuable service, Agha Muhammad Khan gave Shiraz government to Kalantar Khan and he also resettled his relatives in different parts of Fars province and considered a position in government for each one. In Fath Ali Shah era he was still at his post until after a while, king’s circle made a coup and made the king suspicious of him. Fath Ali Shah ordered the execution of Haj Ibrahim Khan Kalantar and all his family members, influenced by king’s circle. Haj Ibrahim had a son named Ali Akbar, who was not killed because of his tuberculosis, and later his illness was miraculously cured. During Fath Ali Shah’s trip to Shiraz, Ali Akbar visited him and reminds him of the Zands overthrow and his own family’s massacre. The king who was regretted of his actions, gave him Qavam Al-mulk title, and so Ali Akbar Khan Qavam Al-mulk became Shiraz governer. After his death, his son, Ali Muhammad Khan, Qavam Al-mulk the second, started consructing a house in the city called Qavam Al-mulk house. But he was not alive until the end of construction and his son, Muhammad Reza Khan, Qavam Al-mulk the third, continued constructing the house around 1261 SH. Muhammad Reza khan had bloody dispute with Hussein Gholi Khan Nezam Al-saltane, Fars governer in that time. He was punished by Muhammad Taghi Mirza Khan Al-dawlah, Nasir Al-din Shah’s brother and has been exiled and wandering in Tehran and other cities. Qavam seraglio or Qavam house, is a result of this time, which doesn’t have very pleasant memories. There was a gypseous bath and three houses around it, but today all of them are separated. In those days orangery garden building was about 940 square meters. It was divided into two parts: north and south, and was on an area of 3500 meters. About 2560 meters of landscaping was done for this garden. In the Qajar period, Qavam garden and its mansions was called exterior, and it was used for business work, ceremonies and celebrations, guest’s restroom and hosting them. Zinat Al-mulk house which is today in the west side of the collection, was the residence of Qavam family and that’s why it was called seraglio. An alley was between the exterior and seraglio and these two places were connected through an underground tunnel. The exterior axis being perpendicular to seraglio is one of the characteristics of this collection. Zinat Al-mulk house was named this because of Zinat Al-mulk Qavam’s residence in here. Mrs. Zinat Al-mulk was Habibullah Khan, Qavam Al-mulk the fourth’s daughter, and Ibrahim Khan Qavam, Qavam Al-mulk the fifth’s sister, and Forugh Almulk was her husband. After her death, Abdullah Khan Qavami inherited the house by Zinat al-mulk, who sold the exquisite monument to a museum. Nowadays. Zinat Al-mulk museum, is located near orangery garden and in the future the carnival will presents this house in full detail. What is known as Qavam orangery garden, is actually the exterior of qavam house. That the basement to seraglio had a way between them and was used for office works, hosting guests and court works. Thus, it can be said that the garden was built and extend between 1257 and 1267 SH, along Nasir Al-din Shah Qajar’s rule. Thought the date of building’s construction is not specified exactly because there is only one inscription in the entire collection, which there is written on it: “Abulghasem Shirazi’s doorway menial, 1302 AH”
This inscription is written in the west side Mirror Room, and because they usually do the mirror work at the end, the date is possibly represents end of the construction. In one of the rooms, on the plasterwork, there is written 1298 AH, which shows the end of plastering. This means that the mirror work lasted 4 years and so it can be early 1290 that the building construction have been started. Qavam house was a private house that after Muhammad Reza Khan, Qavam Al-mulk the third, had transferred to his son, Habibullah Khan, Qavam Al-mulk the fourth. After Qavam Al-mulk the fourth death and division of his property, Qavam orangery garden transferred to his son, Ibrahim Khan, Qavam Al-mulk the fifth. This happened at time of Reza Khan kingdom; the period which the first Pahlavi took all the names and titles of the people.In the book “Ajam works” written by Forsat Al-dawle Shirazi, of Qajar period writers, this garden describes as follows: Qavam garden, in “Bala Kaft” neighborhood, started by deceased Mirza Muhammad Khan Qavam Al-mulk order, and finished by present Qavam Al-mulk order, is the sitting and order place of the eminence. In the east side of the building there is a royal hall, on the two sides of it there are two corridors and next to them, there are two royal five hole Orosis, and on the side of them there are two porches. All of the mansions are decorated with tiny and big mirrors, colorful pictures and miniatures. And in the north and south side of garden there are 21 arcades and on the side of them there are two porches and other rooms. There is a pool which is look like a lake and its top-full of clear water and its garden is like a brilliant star because of orange trees and the smell of heaven. Later, Qavam Garden became known as Qavam orangery garden due to the abundance of orange trees, and was among the most beautiful and most invaluable buildings of the Qajar period. Ibrahim Qavam made some changes in the building and In 1345 SH, donated it to the University of Shiraz for artistic and cultural activities. Ibrahim Qavam dies in 1348 SH, and And the political record of this family was closed forever; But a invaluable memorial left of them. This invaluable garden transferred from Ibrahim Khan to his grandson Shahram, and Shahram Qavam gave it to the Asian Institute of Pahlavi University (Shiraz). The University of Shiraz gave the Garden to the Asian Institute, led by Arthur Abraham Pop, a renowned American Ian expert, from the years 1348 to 1358. This institute by using Schedule organization cultural unit’s assistance and Other sources including Farah Pahlavi did a lot of detailed repairs and Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz artists and craftsmen, restored the building as well. Now in the library of this building, the collection of donated books by Professor Pope to the University of Shiraz, brings that period of time in mind. In the revolution period, some damages came to the garden, and the porch of the eastern part burnedIn fire and disappearedSo that repair was not possibleAfter the revolution, at the same time as the Iran-Iraq war, the war-torn families settled in the building and of course, this also caused some damages to the structure. Some of the destructions are removing the pins inside the rooms and pulling the wall mirror works to remove the photos.